Pesticide Descriptions

Chemical Name Description Type
Azoxystrobin An experimental compound used on cereals, vegetables, fruit crops, peanuts, turf, ornamentals, stone fruit, bananas, rice, apples, grapes, & potatoes. This chemical does not leach and is unlikely to contaminate water bodies. It is found to exhibit very low ecological risks, to aquatic life, birds, and mammals. Other names include Abound, Amistar, Bankit, Heritage, and Quadris. Fungicide
Boscalid Fungicide used on specialty crops such as straberries, beans, stone fruit, tree nuts, root vegetables, carrots, grapes, Brassica vegetables, and sunflowers ( Fungicide
Carbendazim (MBC) Found to be acutely toxic to honeybees, having an effect on long term survival of colonies. Foods with Carbendazim residues include: strawberries, green beans, apple sauce, blueberries, sweet bell peppers, apples, cherries, green onions, spinach, bananas, honey, lettuce, water, celery, cauliflower, celery & broccoli. Fungicide
Chlorothalonil General use insecticide used on trees, small fruits, turf, ornamentals, and vegetables. Found to be non-toxic to honey bees ( Fungicide
Cyprodinil Used as a foliar fungicide on cereals, grapes, pome fruit, stone fruit, strawberries, vegetables, field crops and ornamentals; and as a seed dressing on barley. Fungicide
Dicloran Widely used fungicide used on a variety of ornamentals, fruit and vegetable crops such as pricots, snap beans, carrots, celery, cherries, cucumber, endive, fennel, garlic, grapes, lettuce, nectarines, onions, peaches, plums, potatoes, prunes, rhubarb, shallots, sweet potatoes and tomatoes ( Fungicide
Fenbuconazole Systemic fungicide intended for use as an agricultural and horticultural fungicide spray for the control of leaf spot, yellow and brown rust, powdery mildew and net blotch on wheat and barley and apple scab, pear scab and apple powdery mildew on apples and pears. Residues are also found on cherries, apricots, plums, peaches, grapes, oranges and grapefruits and numerous vegetables. Fungicide
Fludioxonil A fungicide used to control fungal disease, making it a useful seed treatment as well as a post-harvest treatment for fruit such as apples, bilberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broad beans, combining peas, crab apples, cranberries, dwarf french beans, edible podded peas, forest nursery, gooseberries, ornamental plant production, pears, quinces, raspberries, redcurrants, runner beans, strawberries, vining peas and whitecurrants ( Fungicide
Metalaxyl A fungicide used in mixtures as a foliar spray for tropical and subtropical crops, as a soil treatment for control of soil-borne pathogens, and as a seed treatment to control downy mildews. Its average half-life in soil is about 70 days. At pH's of 5 to 9 and temperatures of 20 to 30 degrees C, the half- life in water was greater than four weeks. Metalaxyl is non-toxic to honeybees. Fungicide
Myclobutanil A fungicide registered for use on a wide range of food crops. It is used heavily to control fungi affecting wine and table grapes, especially in California. California accounts for roughyl 50% or all myclobutanil use in the US. 60% of myclobutanil use in CA is applied to grapes. It also has a number of other food crop and commercial or residential landscaping applications. Found to be non-toxic to honey bees.( Fungicide
Pyraclostrobin Controls foliar fungal diseases Residues are found on a variety of fruits including melons, apples, brassicaea family, sunflowers, beans, peppers, lettuces, kale and cucumbers. Fungicide
Tebuconazole A powder used to treat pathogenic and foliar plant fungi on food and feed crops. Fungicide
Thiabendazole Fungicide used to control mold, rot, blight and stain on fruits and vegetables. It is found to be non-toxic to honey bees. Fungicide
Trifloxystrobin A long-term effective pesticide used to treat fungal turf infections such as brown patch, red thread, rust, anthracnose, fusarium patch and dollar spot ( Fungicide
THPI Major metabolite of Captan, a fungicide. Used to control diseases on a number of fruits and vegetables as well as ornamental plants. It also improves the outward appearance of many fruits, making them brighter and healthier-looking. Captan is utilized by both home and agricultural growers and is often applied during apple production. Captan is cited as Group B2, a probable human carcinogen by the EPA. Fungicide
Vinclozolin General use fungicide used on raspberries, chicory, lettuce, kiwi, canola, snap beans, dry bulb onions, ornamentals, and turf ( Fungicide
Pesticide Description Type
Atrazine A commonly used, effective and inexpensive herbicide used to eliminate noxious weeds in major crops. It frequently contaminates groundwater and is can causes male amphibians (frogs) to change gender. It is restricted in Europe. Herbicide
Fluridone Herbicide used to control aquatic weeds in freshwater ponds whether floating, submerged or emersed ( Herbicide
Metolachlor Applied to soil to control weeds in corn, soybeans, peanuts, grain sorghum, potatoes, pod crops, cotton, safflower, stone fruits, nut trees, highway right-of-ways and woody ornamental fields. Rapid degradation in sunny soil ( Herbicide
Oxyfluorfen Herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds in fruit and vegetable crops as well as ornamentals. It is also used for weed control on patios and driveways. "The largest agricultural markets in terms of total pounds active ingredient are wine grapes and almonds." It does not appear to have an effect on honey bees. Herbicide
Pendimethalin Herbicide used to control annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds. Usually used to protect crops such as wheat, corn, soybeans potatoes, cabbage, peas, carrots and asparagus. Found to not be toxic to bees or mammals but highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates and fish. Herbicide
Propazine Herbacide found to be non-toxic to honey bees. Applied to boradleaf weeds and annual grasses in sweet sorghum in the form of a spray or powder ( Herbicide
Tebuthiuron Tebuthiuron is a herbicide used to control weeds in noncropland areas, rangelands, rights-of-way and industrial sites. Weeds that are controlled by tebuthiuron include alfalfa, bluegrasses, chickweed, clover, dock, goldenrod, mullein, etc. If used correctly it should not pose a threat to bees ( Herbicide
Trifluralin Herbicide on used on grass, to control broadleaf weeds and on some fruit and vegetable crops, flowers and shrubs such as cotton, alfalfa, sunflowers and soybeans are examples. Insoluble in water but does not leave residues on crops so residues only occur in root tissues. Considered a pre-emergence herbicide Herbicide
2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF) Amitraz is a non-systemic acaricide and insecticide. Amitraz is among many other purposes best known as insecticide against mite- or tick-infestation of dogs. Insecticide
Acephate General use insecticide commonly used to treat species, in fruit, vegetables (e.g. potatoes and sugar beets), vine, and hop cultivation and in horticulture to protect from biting and sucking insects. Considered toxic to bees at 1.2 ug/bee (Kidd, H. and James, D. R., Eds. The Agrochemicals Handbook, Third Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services, Cambridge, UK, 1991 (as updated).5-14). Insecticide
Acetamiprid Contact neonicatinoid insecticide targeting sucking-type insects. Can be applied to soil or as a foliar spray on apples, cherries, letttuce, pears, peppers, house and garden plants, potatoes, plums and tomatoes ( Insecticide
Aldicarb sulfone Active ingredient in pesticide Temik. It is effective against thrips, aphids, spider mites, lygus, fleahoppers, and leafminers, but is primarily used as a nematicide in potato crops. Its weakness is its high level of solubility, which restricts its use in certain areas where the water table is close to the surface. Insecticide
Aldicarb sulfoxide See above. Insecticide
Bifenthrin Insecticide used mainly again red fire ants but also used to control aphids, worms, ants, gnats, moths, beetles, grasshoppers, mites, midges, spiders, ticks, yellow jackets, maggots, thrips, caterpillars, flies and fleas. It is mostly used in orchards, nurseries and homes and is seen in large amounts on corn. It is highly toxic to aquatic organisms and has one of the longest known residual times in soil on the market. "In bees, the lethal concentration (LC50) of bifenthrin is about 17 mg/L. At sub lethal concentrations, bifenthrin reduces the fecundity of bees, decreases the rate at which bees develop into adulthood, and increases their immature periods. Dai, Ping-Li; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xing; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting (2010). "Effects of sub lethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybeeApis mellifera logistical". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29 (3): 644–9." A Pyrethroid insecticide. Insecticide
Chlorpyrifos Insecticide effective in controlling cutworms, corn rootworms, cockroaches, grubs, flea beetles, flies, termites, fire ants, and lice. Mainly used as an insecticide on grain, cotton, field, fruit, nut and vegetable crops, and well as on lawns and ornamental plants. "Aquatic and general agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos pose a serious hazard to wildlife and honeybees" (Kidd, H. and James, D. R., Eds. The Agrochemicals Handbook, Third Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services, Cambridge, UK, 1991, 5-14) Insecticide
Coumaphos A widely used insecticide found to be moderately toxic to bees. It used to control livestock insects such as cattle grubs, screw worms, lice, scabies, flies and ticks. Coumaphos is an organophosphate which affects the activity of naturally occuring enzymes called cholinesterases in humans and insects that are essential for the proper functioing of the nervous system ( Insecticide
Pesticide Description Type
Coumaphos oxon Coumaphos degraded to its first coroxon (a metabolite of Coumaphos) Insecticide
Cyfluthrin Insecticide used to control cutworms, ants, silverfish, cockroaches, termites, grain beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, fleas, flies, corn earworms, tobacco budworm, codling moth, European corn borer, cabbageworm, loopers, armyworms, boll weevil, alfalfa weevil, Colorado potato beetle, and many others. Its primary agricultural uses have been for control of chewing and sucking insects on crops such as cotton, turf, ornamentals, hops, cereal, corn, deciduous fruit, peanuts, potatoes, and other vegetables. Cyfluthrin is also used in public health situations and for structural pest control. Cyfluthrin is the active ingredient in many insecticide products including Baythroid, Baythroid H, Attatox, Contur, Laser, Responsar, Solfac, Tempo and Tempo H. Cyfluthrin is highly toxic to bees with an LD50 of 0.037 mg/bee. A Synthetic pyrethroid derivative that is used as an insecticide and a common household pesticide. Insecticide
Cyhalothrin total Synthetic pyrethroid Insecticide
Cypermethrin Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as in consumer products for domestic purposes. Lasts 2-8 weeks in the soil and unlikely to contaminate groundwater. Insecticide
Diazinon In 1994 the EPA phased out the residential use of Diazinon and in 1988 cancelled the registration for use on golf courses and sod farms. It is currently used on rice, fruit trees, sugarcane, corn tobacco, potatoes, and other horticultural plants ( Insecticide
Dichlorvos An organophosphate insecticide used to control mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and white flies in fruit and vegetble crops. It is also fed to livestock to control botfuly larvae in manure as well as parasitic worm infections in humans, livestock and dogs. Many plants tolerate the pesticide very well and it is toxic to bees ( Insecticide
Dicofol A miticide used on fruit, vegetable, ornamental and field crops. It id found to be non-toxic to honey bees ( Insecticide
Dieldrin Banned insecticide as of 1987 and no longer produced in the US. used to control insects on cotton, corn and citrus crops. Used to control locusts and mosquitoes, as a wood preserve, and for termite control. (EPA) Insecticide
Diflubenzuron Insecticide used to control many leaf eating larvae of insects feeding on agricultural, forest and ornamental plants (e.g. gypsy moths, mosquito larvae, rust mites). Diflubenzuron is used primarily on cattle, citrus, cotton, mushrooms, ornamentals, standing water, forestry trees and in programs to control mosquito larvae and gypsy moth populations. (EPA) Insecticide used in controlling insect pests in forests and on field crops. It inhibits the production of chitin used by an insect to build its exoskeleton. Insecticide
Endosulfan I Controversial insecticide that is globally being phased out by mid 2012. Endosulfan has been used in agriculture around the world to control insect pests including whiteflys, aphids, leafhoppers, Colorado potato beetles and cabbage worms however it can negatively effect populations of beneficial insects and is moderately toxic to honey bees (Oregon State University). Endocrine disruptor and acutely neurotoxic to both insects and mammals. Insecticide
Endosulfan II Endosulfan metabolite Insecticide
Endosulfan sulfate Endosulfan metabolite Insecticide
Esfenvalerate Insecticide used on a wide range of pests such as moths, flies, beetles, and other insects. It is used on vegetable crops, tree fruits, and nut crops. "Esfenvalerate is also highly toxic to bees. The compound tends to repel bees for a day or two after application, causing bee visitations to drop during that time . Since most intoxicated bees die in the field before they can return to contaminate the hive, the brood is not exposed except by direct spray. Dried spray residues are not expected to pose a significant threat to bees" (Asana XL Technical Bulletin. (no date). Du Pont Chemical Corp). Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Insecticide
Fenpropathrin Insecticide used in agriculture and on ornamentals. Used to control mites in fruits and vegetables. Insecticide
Fenpyroximate Acaricide used to control varroa mites. Insecticide
Flonicamid Insecticide used to control hemipterous, or sucking insects such as aphids and whiteflies on fruit, cereal and root/tuber crops, by inhibiting feeding behavior. No honey bee toxity infromation is currently available for this insecticide ( Insecticide
Fluvalinate Insecticide mainly used to treat honey bees for Varroa mites. Insecticide
Imidacloprid The most widely used insecticide in the world to control beetles, fleas, aphids, stink bugs, termites, locusts, thrips, carpenter ants and cockroaches. It is one of the most toxic insecticides to honey bees (^ Suchail, Séverine; Guez, David; Belzunces, Luc P. (November 2011). "Discrepancy between acute and chronic toxicity induced by imidacloprid and its metabolites in Apis mellifera". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 2482-2486.) Insecticide
Methoxyfenozide Insecticide used to target lepidopterous insects (moths) causing premature molting. Not believed to be toxic to honey bees. Insecticide
Pesticide Description Type
Methamidophos A highly active, systemic, residual organophosphate insecticide. It is used on crops such as broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, grapes, celery, sugar beets, cotton, tobacco, and potatoes to protect them against aphids, flea beetles, worms, whiteflies, thrips, cabbage loopers, Colorado potato beetles, potato tubeworms, armyworms, mites, and leafhoppers. Toxic to honey bees as one study found it greatly reduces the foraging activity of bees for a prolonged period of time after application (Gary, N.E. and K. Lorenzen. 1989. Effect of Methamidophos on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) During Alfalfa Pollination. J. Econ. Entomol. 82(4): 1067-1072.) Insecticide
Methomyl Broad spectrum insecticide used to control spiders and ticks as well as applications to agricultural crops. It cosidered highly toxic to honey bees through direct contact and ingestion ( Inseticide
Paradichlorobenzene A fumigant insecticide used to control moths and moth larvae. In 2010, 30 known products on the market contained paradichlorobenzene according to the EPA. Hives can be fumigated with this chemical to stave off wax moth infestation ( Insecticide
Permethrin total The majority of permethrin, over 70%, is used in non-agricultural settings. It is used on many food and feed crops. A pyrethroid. Insecticide
Phosmet Insecticide mainly used on apple trees for the control of codling moth it however used on other fruit crops and ornamentals and vines for aphids, suckers, mites and fruit flies control. Insecticide
Pyridaben An insecticide applied to fruit and nut crops such as apples, pears and almonds. Per package instructions, the insecticide should not to be sprayed when honey bees are in close proximity to a treatment area as it is toxic to honey bees ( Insecticide
Tebufenozide Molt-inducing pesticide used on cabbage, cauliflower, beet, soybean, cotton, mealie, tea, tobacco and fruit trees. Found to be not acutely toxic to honey bees ( Insecticide
Thiacloprid Neonicotinoid insecticide that is mainly for chewing insects Insecticide
Thymol Used as an antifungal or anti fermentation agent in producing sugar syrup and as an aromatic material for use against the Varroa mite in special evaporator frames. Essential oil, active ingredient in Apiguard. Insecticide
Thiamethoxam Insecticide classified as a neonicatoid. Used to deter insect feeding from aphids, thrips, beetles, centipedes, millipedes, sawflies, leaf miners, stem borers and termites. Insecticide

Compiled by Karen Rennich and Jennie Stitzinger for the National Honey Bee Pest and Disease Survey funded by APHIS#########